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ARCHIVED - Posters and Broadsides in Canada

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Introduction

The Art of the Poster in Canada

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Colour poster with illustration of a man standing at the left, holding a ledger for Liberal budgets. Sitting at a desk to the right, a business man states that the budgets have decreased his debt, enlarged trade and increased profits. The words "Vote Liberal" are at far left and far right

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Figure 4

Posters, as defined by Library and Archives Canada, are divided into two categories: broadsides, that is, a piece of printed paper that is wholly textual in nature; and posters, which contain both graphic and textual elements, with both intended to be placed on display for informational purposes. LAC is the child of two former institutions: historically, the former National Library of Canada collected broadsides, while the former National Archives of Canada collected posters. Nowadays, LAC acquires all forms of posters in three ways: as part of a legal deposit program, within the government records acquisition program, and through the donation and purchase of materials from both private organizations and individuals.


Figure 4: Campaign poster commenting on the Liberal Party's sound financial management. The National Liberal Bureau. Ottawa, 1930


Posters have a long history, going back to the invention of printing in Western Europe. They began to be produced widely at the beginning of the 16th century, and contributed in no small part to political and social debates in European society for the next three centuries. The use of posters, particularly for political purposes, was widespread, as they were often the weapon of opposition. But governments also used the power of the poster for their own purposes-to issue edicts, seek out criminals, or announce new regulations. Increasingly, posters also began to be used for commercial purposes: to announce plays, festivals, musical entertainment and other social events.

Black-and-white newspaper image of a large printing press. Name of company and city of manufacture is printed underneath the image

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Figure 5
Black-and-white souvenir poster featuring a number of vignettes of different portraits and city views. Title at top, additional text at bottom

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Figure 6
Colour poster depicting a woman dancing with four apparitions floating behind her. Title in orange on black background at bottom

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Figure 7

Figure 5: Canadian Illustrated News advertisement for the New Style, Automatic printing press. May, 1877

Figure 6: Souvenir of the Grande Fête Nationale des Canadiens français. Montréal, Quebec. June 24, 1880

Figure 7: Advertisement for the ballet In the Land of the Spirits, produced by Canadian Native Arts Foundation and the National Arts Centre, ca. 1992


The limitations of the printing medium meant that most posters were textual in nature until the 19th century. In Germany in 1798, Alois Senefelder invented lithography, a new medium for printing mass quantities of posters that could also combine text and image on one stone. Lithography rapidly developed into a colour printing medium, using multiple stones, and with the invention of steam presses in the 1850s, thousands of posters could be produced in an hour. Developments in printing in Germany, France, Britain and the United States made the art of the poster grow increasingly complex, while designs became more aesthetically pleasing than ever. Nineteenth-century commercial developments, including the first department stores (1824), railways (1830), large-scale hotels, travelling circuses and theatrical performances, and, finally, specialized display tools for poster advertising, all led to a massive increase in the number and range of posters produced. The number of printing companies in Canada quadrupled from 1850 to 1900, and the rise of the modern advertising agency-Britain's Carlton Studios, which was co-founded by four Canadians in 1902, soon became the world's largest advertising agency-contributed to the growth in production and distribution of posters as a medium of mass persuasion.

Colour poster with illustration at centre of a lumber mill and surrounding buildings. Each corner has an illustration of a part of the property. Company name at top, location at bottom

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Figure 8
Colour poster with illustration of the ocean liner, "Empress of Britain." Title of the company at top and additional contact information at bottom

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Figure 9

Figure 8: Advertisement for E.B. Eddy's Manufacturing & Lumbering Establishment, Hull, P.Q, ca. 1884

Figure 9: Advertisement for Canadian Pacific's Empress Steamers ocean liner service, from England to Canada, 1920


In Canada, the history of the art of the poster touches on every aspect of daily life. The production and printing of broadsides was the most common form of public notification in the 18th and early 19th centuries, used for many purposes. The production of posters (broadsides with pictures) became the method of choice from the 1860s onward to deliver the message of businesses, political parties, governments and other public enterprises to a wider public. A general policy of industrial protectionism in the 1850s enabled the fledgling Canadian printing industry to develop in the face of foreign companies, and the immigration to Canada of skilled artisans, particularly from Great Britain and Germany, also helped the industry develop. Posters became more complex and attractive. Political posters in the 1891 election campaign, for example, set the tone for almost all large advertising campaigns from then onwards. The image of a flag-draped Sir John A. Macdonald ("The Old Flag, The Old Party, The Old Leader") became an iconic symbol of late 19th-century politics, much as the "Trudeau as Che Guevara" poster from the 1968 election campaign became a symbol of politics in the 1960s. In Toronto and Montréal, and to a lesser extent, Hamilton, the number of companies engaged in the chromolithographic printing trade grew rapidly.

Colour poster depicting abundant farmland and various communities. Overlaying the image is a world map and sources of international immigration. Title at top, additional text at bottom

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Figure 10
Liberal election poster depicting a mother and child passing a store display window filled with various home consumer products. "Vote Liberal" at top, additional text at bottom

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Figure 11
Colour illustration of a cannery situated in a small bay surrounded by trees. A river leads away from the bay towards forested hills and a mountain range

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Figure 12
Colour poster with an illustration of a farmer and worker holding Sir John A. Macdonald aloft on their locked arms. Sir John is holding up a British ensign flag. Title at bottom

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Figure 13
Poster printed in black on beige paper, with image of Pierre Elliott Trudeau

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Figure 14

Figure 10: Advertisement for farmland in Canada, specifically in Manitoba, Canadian Northwest and British Columbia, ca. 1890

Figure 11: Campaign poster commenting on the Liberal Party reducing duties and prices. The National Liberal Bureau. Ottawa, 1930

Figure 12: Empire Marketing Board advertisment for a salmon cannery on the Pacific Coast of Canada, 1926 - 1934

Figure 13: Conservative campaign poster supporting old policies, leader and allegiance to Britain, 1891

Figure 14: Campaign poster featuring image of Pierre Elliott Trudeau, based on artwork of Che Guevara, 1968


For generations, Canadians have been exposed to the First World War through the recruiting and Victory Loan posters featuring the new Canadian Army-the heroes of St. Julien, Vimy, and Passchendaele-and the men and women who operated the industrial plants, worked in the shipyards, and donated funds to keep the war effort going. The Second World War saw the art of the poster rise to new heights, with artists such as A.J. Casson, Harry Mayerovitch, Charles Comfort and Henry Eveleigh celebrated for the quality and effectiveness of their work.

Colour poster of a large freighter docked in harbour. A woman with raised arm points the way for the long shoremen towards the ship

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Figure 15
Poster printed with illustration of a tiger leaping at a fleeing German soldier. Title at top, text at bottom

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Figure 16
Colour poster with illustration of a giant hand with water spilling through its fingers. Three electricity towers are pictured in front. Title at top and bottom, additional text at bottom

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Figure 17
Colour poster with illustration of a soldier holding a machine gun and running. Title in black and brown at top, text in brown on green background at bottom

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Figure 18
Colour poster with illustration of a soldier holding a machine gun and running. Title in black and brown at top, text in brown on green background at bottom

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Figure 19
Black-and-white photograph of a recruitment billboard. A uniformed woman in the foreground stands over a globe. Background depicts various women in different work clothing. Title at top, text at bottom

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Figure 20

Figure 15: Victory Bonds poster, "Our Export Trade Is Vital. Buy Victory Bonds," 1916-1918

Figure 16: Local recruitment poster, Hamilton, Ontario, 1915 - 1916

Figure 17: Second World War poster for Canada's war effort and hydro-electricity production

Figure 18: "Ce qu'il faut pour vaincre" poster designed to increase morale and support for the war, featuring Lieutenant-Colonel Menard, 1943

Figure 19: "Men of Valor - They Fight for You" poster designed to increase morale and support for the war featuring Capt. Fred Slocombe, January 1943.

Figure 20: Recruitment billboard for the Canadian Women's Army Corps with the slogan: "It's Our World and Our War"


As early as the 1880s, the Canadian Pacific Railway saw potential in posters to advertise Canada's natural beauty to tourists, and to lure potential immigrants from all over the world. Popular entertainment, in the form of sporting events, circuses, carnivals and fairs, theatrical and dance performances, musicals, recitals and art exhibitions, to name but a few, were advertised through posters. As the 20th century advanced, few urban streets were spared the sight of posters and other printed ephemera on billboards, in store windows, on sidewalk hoardings, and on lampposts and electricity poles. By the 1920s and 1930s, professional advertising agencies became prominent, and individual poster designers started to be recognized for their work and innovation.

Colour poster with illustration of a person saddling a horse. A snow-capped mountain is in the background. Title of the company at top, additional information at bottom

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Figure 21
Colour advertisement of a smiling woman holding a blue bottle containing tablets. To her right is a large representation of the bottle with three red labels that read: Effective / Antacid / Laxative

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Figure 22
Colour advertisement of a smiling woman wearing a bonnet, holding in her arms various types of fruit and a package containing ten boxes of five different cereals

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Figure 23
Colour advertisement with illustration of a woman wearing a gold-coloured bathing suit, holding a pilsener glass of beer, and leaning against a large representation of the beer brand's bottle. At top is the word "Enjoy", additional text at bottom

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Figure 24

Figure 21: Advertisement for Canadian Pacific mentioning outdoor holiday activities, 1925

Figure 22: Advertisement for Rexall Drugs, Milk of Magnesia product

Figure 23: Advertisement for Kellogg's cereal products: Rice Krispies, Krumbles, Pep, Bran Flakes, and Corn Flakes

Figure 24: Advertisement for Regal-Amber Lager Beer


Nowadays, it isn't so easy to tell the story of this graphic phenomenon. The artist C.W. Jefferys wrote in 1945 that:

I am not sure that future opinion of the contemporary art of our day will not consider the advertising poster, the window and counter card as most representative... A hundred or two hundred years hence such work, I venture to predict, may be deemed to be more typical of the art of our time than some of the more pretentious paintings which hang in our public galleries and museums.

But unfortunately, broadsides and posters were always intended to be topical and cheap to produce, with no expectation of long-term survival; they have always been ephemeral. Although there are examples of posters printed in runs of 100,000 or more, specimens of such posters may survive in only one or two public institutions. One of the reasons this website was created is that the holdings of LAC contain so many unique items-all other copies have disappeared.

Broadside printed in black on beige paper. Title at top is surrounded by a decorative motif, contact information at bottom

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Figure 25
Bilingual poster with text in white on black background with an image at centre in yellow depicting four soldiers in black silhouette

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Figure 26
White, black and purple illustration of a ballerina in a dance pose

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Figure 27

Figure 25: Prohibition handout, Plebiscite Series, No. 5. Dominion Women's Christian Temperance Union. Toronto, Ontario

Figure 26: Advertisement for "Posters from Three Wars" exhibition. National Gallery of Canada, 1969

Figure 27: Advertisement for the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, 1980


This website's intent is to examine the art of the broadside and the poster in a series of themes. Within each theme, we will provide a brief introduction and include examples that are arranged chronologically, according to milestones in the evolution of design or associated with individual artists and publishers. We will examine some works in detail, and make links to designers' fonds, preliminary designs, notes, photos and other material. This effort to explain the process of producing a poster aims to enhance the appreciation this medium so richly deserves.

Jim Burant
Manager
Library and Archives Canada
Art and Photography

11 August 2009

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